How will 2024 National Insurance and Income Tax changes impact you?

Significant changes to National Insurance were among the attention-grabbing announcements in Chancellor Jeremy Hunt’s Autumn Statement, which he made in November 2023. And what was perhaps even more notable is one would be introduced in January 2024, rather than April when the new UK tax year begins.

So, what National Insurance and Income Tax changes are being introduced in 2024 and what implications do they have for you? Our friends at GoSimpleTax did the research so you don’t have to, beginning with changes in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, before looking at those planned for Income Tax in Scotland for 2024/25. 

Main rate Class 1 National Insurance cut from 12% to 10%

From 6 January 2024, employee Class 1 National Insurance contributions (NICs) on earnings between £12,570 and £50,270 were reduced by 2% to 10%. The 2% rate on earnings above £50,270 will remain unchanged.

This will affect 27m people in the UK, giving them a welcome boost to their take-home pay packet, says the government. In 2024-25, according to HM Treasury, this is a “tax cut worth £450 for the average employee on £35,400 and means they will pay over 15% less NICs”.

Furthermore, the HM Treasury said: “This action will [reduce] the current 32% combined tax rate for employees (ie Income Tax plus National Insurance) paying the basic rate of tax to 30% – the lowest since the 1980s”. This means: “An average worker in 2024-25 will pay over £1,000 less in personal taxes than they otherwise would have done” says HM Treasury.

Class 2 National Insurance abolished from April 2024

Currently, Class 2 NICs are paid by self-employed people who earn more than £12,570 a year. However, from 6 April 2024, that will no longer be the case, while – crucially – they will still get access to contributory benefits such as the State Pension.

Sole traders with profits of £6,725-£12,570 will also continue to get access to contributory benefits via a National Insurance credit, without paying Class 2s, as is currently the case (ie pre 6 April 2024).

The Small Profits Threshold (after which self-employed people start to receive National Insurance credits) will remain at £6,725. Those with profits below £6,725 and others who pay Class 2 NICs voluntarily to get access to contributory benefits including the State Pension, will continue to be able to do so. The weekly rate they pay will remain at £3.45 for the 2024-25 tax year.

Class 4 National Insurance cut from 9% to 8% from April 2024

Also from 6 April 2024, Class 4 NICs on earnings between £12,570 and £50,270 will be reduced by 1% to 8%. The 2% rate on earnings above the upper limit will be unchanged.

According to HM Treasury, the NIC changes will benefit two million people, saving the average self-employed person on £28,200 some £350 a year. “A typical self-employed plumber on £34,400 will be £410 better off as a result of these cuts”, it states.

What will stay the same?

  • The main Income Tax allowances and thresholds, main NICs thresholds and the Inheritance Tax nil rate bands won’t change for 2024/25. As critics have been quick to point out, it means that as wages rise, more people in the UK will have to pay National Insurance.
  • The NIC Class 1 primary threshold and Class 4 lower profits limit will remain at £12,570 (same as the Personal Allowance threshold).
  • No changes either for the upper earnings limit and NIC Class 4 upper profits limit, which will remain at £50,270 until April 2028.
  • The lower earnings limit (£6,396) and the small profits threshold (£6,725) will also remain the same in 2024/25.
  • No changes were announced for 2024 or 2024/2025 for employers’ National Insurance contributions.

Some other notable changes for 2024/25

  • As announced before the Autumn Statement, the Dividend Allowance will be halved to £500 for 2024/25.
  • The Capital Gains Tax annual exempt amount for individuals and personal representatives will be halved to £3,000 for 2024/25.

What about Scotland?

Changes in Scotland’s 2024/25 budget will mean higher earners will pay more Income Tax. A new 45% band will be introduced for those earning between £75,000 and £125,140, while the top rate of tax, which is paid by those earning more than £125,000, will increase by 1% from 47% to 48%. The current threshold for paying the higher band (£43,663) won’t increase.

The changes will give Scotland six Income Tax bands, three more than the rest of the UK. Someone earning £50,000 in Scotland will pay £1,542 a year more than they would if they lived in another part of the UK, while those earning £150,000 will pay £6,000 more, according to the Scottish Fiscal Commission.

The Scottish government estimates that 114,000 people will pay the new advanced tax rate for those earning £75,000-£125,000, with an additional 40,000 people paying the top rate because they earn more than £125,000 a year (source: BBC News). Reportedly, the Income Tax changes are intended to help plug a £1.5bn funding shortfall in Scotland’s spending budget.

The Scottish government has published a fact sheet detailing changes made to Scottish Income Tax for 2024 to 2025.


This article was created 15th March 2024

Please note, the content in this article has been provided by a 3rd party and is not guidance from Cashplus. Cashplus Bank make no representations or warranties of any kind, explicit or implied with respect to the contents of this article. Without limitation, Cashplus Bank specifically excludes and disclaims all express or implied warranties and conditions to the extent permitted by law, and any action taken using such content is strictly at the user’s risk.

Terms and Conditions apply, including applicants being resident in the UK & aged 18+ and, if relevant, businesses being based in the UK.

For full website terms including information on Cashplus Bank, Mastercard and use of Trademarks, please see our full legal disclosures at

Advanced Payment Solutions Limited (APS), trading as Cashplus Bank, is registered in England and Wales at Cottons Centre, Cottons Lane, London SE1 2QG (No.04947027). APS is authorised by the Prudential Regulation Authority and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority and the Prudential Regulation Authority under Firm Reference Number 671140.

APS provides credit facilities subject to approval and affordability, and where accounts continue to meet APS credit criteria.

Mastercard logo